Apache Tomcat Development
For administrators and web developers alike, there are some important bits
of information you should familiarize yourself with before starting out. This
document serves as a brief introduction to some of the concepts and
terminology behind the Tomcat container. As well, where to go when you need
In the course of reading these documents, you will run across a number of
terms; some specific to Tomcat, and others defined by the
- Context - In a nutshell, a Context is a
That is it. If you find any more terms we need to add to this section, please
do let us know.
|Directories and Files|
These are some of the key tomcat directories:
- /bin - Startup, shutdown, and other scripts. The
*.sh files (for Unix systems) are functional duplicates of
*.bat files (for Windows systems). Since the Win32
command-line lacks certain functionality, there are some additional
files in here.
- /conf - Configuration files and related DTDs. The most
important file in here is server.xml. It is the main configuration file
for the container.
- /logs - Log files are here by default.
- /webapps - This is where your webapps go.
|CATALINA_HOME and CATALINA_BASE|
Throughout the documentation, there are references to the two following
CATALINA_HOME: Represents the root of your Tomcat
installation, for example
CATALINA_BASE: Represents the root of a runtime
configuration of a specific Tomcat instance. If you want to have
multiple Tomcat instances on one machine, use the
If you set the properties to different locations, the CATALINA_HOME location
contains static sources, such as
.jar files, or binary files.
The CATALINA_BASE location contains configuration files, log files, deployed
applications, and other runtime requirements.
|Why Use CATALINA_BASE|
By default, CATALINA_HOME and CATALINA_BASE point to the same directory.
Set CATALINA_BASE manually when you require running multiple Tomcat
instances on one machine. Doing so provides the following benefits:
Easier management of upgrading to a newer version of Tomcat. Because all
instances with single CATALINA_HOME location share one set of
.jar files and binary files, you can easily upgrade the files
to newer version and have the change propagated to all Tomcat instances
using the same CATALIA_HOME directory.
Avoiding duplication of the same static
The possibility to share certain settings, for example the
or bat script file (depending on your operating system).
|Contents of CATALINA_BASE|
Before you start using CATALINA_BASE, first consider and create the
directory tree used by CATALINA_BASE. Note that if you do not create
all the recommended directories, Tomcat creates the directories
automatically. If it fails to create the necessary directory, for example
due to permission issues, Tomcat will either fail to start, or may not
Consider the following list of directories:
bin directory with the
Order of lookup: CATALINA_BASE is checked first; fallback is provided
lib directory with further resources to be added on
Recommended: Yes, if your application depends on external libraries.
Order of lookup: CATALINA_BASE is checked first; CATALINA_HOME is
logs directory for instance-specific log files.
webapps directory for automatically loaded web
Recommended: Yes, if you want to deploy applications.
Order of lookup: CATALINA_BASE only.
work directory that contains temporary working
directories for the deployed web applications.
temp directory used by the JVM for temporary files.
We recommend you not to change the
However, in case you require your own logging implementation, you can
tomcat-juli.jar file in a CATALINA_BASE location
for the specific Tomcat instance.
We also recommend you copy all configuration files from the
CATALINA_HOME/conf directory into the
CATALINA_BASE/conf/ directory. In case a configuration file
is missing in CATALINA_BASE, there is no fallback to CATALINA_HOME.
Consequently, this may cause failure.
At minimum, CATALINA_BASE must contain:
That includes the
conf directory. Otherwise, Tomcat fails
to start, or fails to function properly.
For advanced configuration information, see the
|How to Use CATALINA_BASE|
The CATALINA_BASE property is an environment variable. You can set it
before you execute the Tomcat start script, for example:
- On Unix:
CATALINA_BASE=/tmp/tomcat_base1 bin/catalina.sh start
- On Windows:
CATALINA_BASE=C:\tomcat_base1 bin/catalina.bat start
This section will acquaint you with the basic information used during
the configuration of the container.
All of the information in the configuration files is read at startup,
meaning that any change to the files necessitates a restart of the container.
|Where to Go for Help|
While we've done our best to ensure that these documents are clearly
written and easy to understand, we may have missed something. Provided
below are various web sites and mailing lists in case you get stuck.
As Tomcat 7 is a new release of Tomcat, keep in mind that some of the
issues and solutions vary between the major versions of Tomcat (6.x versus
7.x). As you search around the web, there will be some documentation that
is not relevant to Tomcat 7, but 6.x, 5.x or earlier versions. Doing 3.x
or 4.x things to 7 will probably not work in most cases as the server.xml
files are very different.
- Current document - most documents will list potential hangups. Be sure
to fully read the relevant documentation as it will save you much time
and effort. There's nothing like scouring the web only to find out that
the answer was right in front of you all along!
- Tomcat FAQ
- Tomcat WIKI
- Tomcat FAQ at jGuru
- Tomcat mailing list archives - numerous sites archive the Tomcat mailing
lists. Since the links change over time, clicking here will search
- The TOMCAT-USER mailing list, which you can subscribe to
here. If you don't
get a reply, then there's a good chance that your question was probably
answered in the list archives or one of the FAQs. Although questions
about web application development in general are sometimes asked and
answered, please focus your questions on Tomcat-specific issues.
- The TOMCAT-DEV mailing list, which you can subscribe to
here. This list is
reserved for discussions about the development of Tomcat
itself. Questions about Tomcat configuration, and the problems you run
into while developing and running applications, will normally be more
appropriate on the TOMCAT-USER list instead.
And, if you think something should be in the docs, by all means let us know
on the TOMCAT-DEV list.